stack and heap

lots of good things including examples and pictures to help: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/79923/what-and-where-are-the-stack-and-heap

  • The stack is the memory set aside as scratch space for a thread of execution. When a function is called, a block is reserved on the top of the stack for local variables and some bookkeeping data. When that function returns, the block becomes unused and can be used the next time a function is called. The stack is always reserved in a LIFO order; the most recently reserved block is always the next block to be freed. This makes it really simple to keep track of the stack; freeing a block from the stack is nothing more than adjusting one pointer.

The heap is memory set aside for dynamic allocation. Unlike the stack, there’s no enforced pattern to the allocation and deallocation of blocks from the heap; you can allocate a block at any time and free it at any time. This makes it much more complex to keep track of which parts of the heap are allocated or free at any given time; there are many custom heap allocators available to tune heap performance for different usage patterns.

Each thread gets a stack, while there’s typically only one heap for the application (although it isn’t uncommon to have multiple heaps for different types of allocation).

The OS allocates the stack for each system-level thread when the thread is created. Typically the OS is called by the language runtime to allocate the heap for the application.

  • (in C++, everything created by and only by “new” method or malloc() is on the heap, other things are on the stack; that means all objects are on the heap too because the constructor new will be called.)
  • Any local variables inside a function is put on the stack; it goes away after you return from the function.

enter image description here

 

class Thingy;

Thingy* foo( ) 
{
  int a; // this int lives on the stack
  Thingy B; // this thingy lives on the stack and will be deleted when we return from foo
  Thingy *pointerToB = &B; // this points to an address on the stack
  Thingy *pointerToC = new Thingy(); // this makes a Thingy on the heap.
                                     // pointerToC contains its address.

  // this is safe: C lives on the heap and outlives foo().
  // Whoever you pass this to must remember to delete it!
  return pointerToC;

  // this is NOT SAFE: B lives on the stack and will be deleted when foo() returns. 
  // whoever uses this returned pointer will probably cause a crash!
  return pointerToB;
}
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